It is a etymology of education, example of the use of the word “education” (Chinese) is, AnaHajime (Confucius (Koshi) and Mencius (the other is) can be traced back to the era of). In the classic Chinese “Mencius” written over the past 2000 years or more, as one of the fun of Kimiko, it is the first time that “to gain the genius of the world and to educate it” is mentioned It is a citation (“Mencius” Eccentric · above). That excerpt is literally “teaching and nurturing”, but what is targeted is “genius of the world” to the last, it was not said to include “child” like everywhere. In addition, “teaching” is a ligature between “study” (learning) and “support” (giving attention by tapping lightly), which means “follow from the bottom downward” There is a person who is “growing up” from the fallen figure of “moon” (meat moon) and “child”, and it is said that it symbolizes the birthing scene, and “nurture” is the original principle.
Even in Japan, the word “education” seems to have been known (or used) among intellectuals along with the source part of “Mencius” since the beginning of the era as a lover word, although it was written by the Japanese It is in the Edo period that it will appear inside. However, in the books until the middle period of the Edo period, the use of “edification” was more common, became a book in the late Edo period, “education” finally became to be used more often. In the Ansei Year near the end of the Tokugawa period (1854 to 1860), in the school for the ruling class at the time such as the clan school, in the document that wrote the contents and targets of the school activities, “education” It is confirmed that it is frequently used.
However, it is not only to teach academics to elderly children but to discuss various things related to child care, growth and development, including the general population, with the word “education” , It is not yet seen through the Edo period. Such a story was spoken by Japanese words such as “Oshiiu” “Oshareu” “Yasashinaru” “Shitashi” “Osaru” “Naru”, rather than the Chinese word “education”. Etymology of “teach” is “love (wo) is a shim”, etymology of also “grow” is “FukuTatsu (Soita) is said to be one.” Both of them are everyday words with emotional feelings of childhood (Ogane Nago) . Many people, including Confucian scholars Kaibara (1630-1714) , have issued diverse parenting books during the Edo era, but there is no example of “education” there. Masuya’s “Wild Child Custody Lesson” (1710) is a modern day school where children’s growth stage is followed, such as how to train infants, how to form habits, how to lead studies, how to learn morals and social norms Although it covers all aspects of education as seen from the viewpoint, there is no use case of the word “education”.
In the Meiji Era, the term “education” became widely used in broad, general and abstract terms such as child rearing at home, teaching activities at school, and policies concerning nurturing young people. It is after that. “Education” began to be used as a translated word for transplanting the meaning of English “education education”. Even though it is the same translated word, for example, the term “society” is newly coined by a specific individual like Yukichi Fukuzawa in order to transplant the meaning of English “Society society” “, It was already distributed as Chinese and Japanese. In the early Meiji era, “education” was to be converted as a translated word that plays the meaning of that until then, which is the meaning of “Education”.
The usage of English “Education” is much wider and diverse than that of “Education” in Chinese. Speaking historically, not only children child and young people young people are eligible for education. Things such as feeding silkworm silkworm and taming an animal animal were also expressed by the word “Education”, and the subjects of education were not only human beings like parents and teachers, but also the world world Or circumstances circumstance was able to do.
English education and French educationRegarding the etymology of the word ducation, there are various opinions and the interpretation is not fixed. According to the common theory, it is said that it is the word originating in the Latin educare educare. And educare is a compound word of the prefix “e -” meaning “going out” and the verb ducare having the meaning of “pulling”, meaning “to bring out the ability (inside the child) to the outside” It has been interpreted as having. Also in German, the word Erziehung Air Touch is built as a compound word of er- (out) and ziehen (subtract), incorporating the purpose of Latin educare as well.
However, there is also persistent interpretation in Latin educare that it did not mean “to bring out what is inside” originally. If you are searching for the Latin word corresponding to the meaning of “pulling out what is inside”, educational educere is more suitable than educare. Therefore, the interpretation of “education is not originally stuffed but pulled out” is an “interpretation” in which mentality was put in, and it was said that it became circulated as a common theory beforehand It seems to be true.
The interpretation that this “to derive the ability (inside)” is the principle of “education” is the interpretation of the Japanese “education” that we received as “to learn from the bottom from the bottom” Bring a big change to the sense of the word. What brought about the change is the arrival of modern Western ideas that respect individual intentions and new teaching techniques since “child discovery”. Among them, from the Meiji 10s through the 1920s, the teaching method of developmentism brought by the United States from translators, foreign teachers employed, international students from Japan also conveyed a model that should have primary education to Japan (Wakabayashi Torazumiro, Shirai Takeshi compilation (strange)”Revised Professor Procedure” 1883 – 1884). It replaces a traditional way to the unilateral implantation or mimic only aim of knowledge, such as Tenarai in reading method or Terakoya in Hanko, things the real and the pictorial (Sugoroku (Sugoroku) FIG etc. It is a method of teaching how to teach a dialogue between a teacher and a student, that is, a question-and-answer method, while showing by a pupil. Through direct observation of things with your own eyes (= intuition), let students tell their impressions and accumulate knowledge by themselves. At the same time, it is a way to nurture (= develop) the ability to see things, to think and to judge. The Ministry of Education actively adopted this intuitionistic teaching method and teaching method of developmentism as a policy of the country promoting primary education, but along with the spread of this teaching method, in Japan as well, in the United States and European countries With the same level as in the case, the word “education” spreads. It is rooted in the Japanese vocabulary ( Japanese ) as a keyword to encourage activities and spontaneity of the child’s side, not simply stuffing knowledge or teaching one-sided teaching by the teacher, since the Meiji era .
The word “education” is used broadly and narrowly. Also, educational activities and work are viewed both macroscopically and microscopically.
If we view “education” in the broadest sense, education refers to all the actions that affect both the physical and mental aspects of human beings. Its actions include parts that are not conscious of both those who act and those who are acting like the influences naturally given through family life and social activities. In this broad sense, it is called “unintentional education”, and because it is an action attached to the function of society, it is also called “education as a function”, and furthermore it is not an effect to be done in school or other institutions Therefore, it is also called “non-institutional education (informal education)”. Including all kinds of education beyond the value judgment which is the preferred action and which is the undesirable effect. It is attached as a fact to any society, from a small society such as a home to a large society such as a community, civil society, nation, ethnic group. It is also the education actually done in society, it is the fundamental function of maintaining and preserving society. As for this education, the French sociologist Durkheim called “education as thing ( education ducation)”, distinguished from ” education as practice (pedagogie p dagogie)”.
On the other hand, when “education” is used narrowly, “education” refers to intentional human formation (intentional education). Education in a narrow sense is such practice that education such as school education, that is, pursue purpose and goal, choose the contents necessary for realization, devise ways appropriate for conveying the contents . Unlike education (non-institutional education) that is attached to the function of society as a fact, education as a practice is always accompanied by value judgment such as desirability, appropriateness and effectiveness. The confusion frequently seen in discussing contemporary educational problems often occurs when the parties to the discussion are not clearly aware of education in either broad sense or narrow sense. [Akio Miyadera]
See the table of contents for education
Two views on education
Even when we look at the role that education plays, there are two perspectives. First, from a microscopic point of view, that is, from a viewpoint that focuses on individuals, education is a way to encourage people (children) born as a potential developmental possibility, to make it possible It can be said that it is a kind of business. From this point of view, the definition “education is to help children develop,” is often made. Shigenobu Shinohara (1876-1957), a representative Japanese educational scholar in the early Showa era, clearly defines that “education is an action to subsidize the development of educators.” In this case, the object of education is a person (child), and education is regarded as being done in a direct relationship between parents and children, teachers and students.
On the other hand, from a macroscopic point of view, that is, from the viewpoint of the society, education tells people (children) who newly join society the culture, language, lifestyle, rules, etc. of society Alright, it is a way to make them members of society. From this point of view, the definition “education is to adapt children to society” is made. Sometimes it is said that “education is socialization (socialization)”. Seiichi Miyahara, an educational scholar who played a significant role behind Shinohara and played an important role in World War II, said that education should be ” “Although the definition of” control “here is not limited to just the teacher. It is also included that each society adds control to the formation process based on their “desirability”.
If viewed microscopically, education is a subsidy for development, but if viewed in a macroscopic view, education is socialization and social control. These two perspectives and definitions are in the relationship between the front and back of medals, and can not be separated. Helping children’s development is done to adapt their children into society, and from the other side, promoting children’s social adaptation will aid children’s development .
British educational philosopher Peters Richard Stanley Peters (1919-2011) defines “education is an initiative” with the meaning of both medals of developmental subsidy and social adaptation. Children are drawn into cultural forms and thinking forms that are becoming a place of public social life, and a common basis of living as human beings, that is, “form of life” is nurtured , Peters is watching.
However, in this way, the reason why development subsidies and social adaptation can be regarded as the same process without inconsistency and discrepancy is that society can exist stably without large fluctuations As long as you think that you will continue to exist (or keep on steadily existing). When such traditionalism and conservatism view can no longer be premised on, it is not so simple that the relationship between the subsidy of child development and adaptation to society is so simple. Especially, even though it is called “society”, when people with various cultural backgrounds are mixed with each other, and the future image of society becomes unclear, it becomes “development” the essence of education Or “adaptation” itself will lose reality itself. Because, as to which way of speaking it has meaning as long as it is clear to all people, the goal and premise is to be clear. It is not very meaningful to argue abstractly that it is to talk about development without distinctly showing the purpose, that is the ultimate reach point, and to promote development, the essence of education. While the purpose (telesis in Greek) and the theory of purpose are uncertain, the principle of “education at once” or “from easy to difficult” can be set from the side of method and methodology. However, it is difficult to talk about the effectiveness of the methodology without goal theory. The principle of “method” (meta · hodos in Greek) is “to follow along the way”. Where to get to where it should be the essence of the way. [Akio Miyadera]
Possibility and necessity of education
We can educate and think about the reason why it is necessary to educate from both personal viewpoint and social perspective.
Kant (1724-1804), modern German philosopher, said in a pedagogy lecture at Königsberg University at the end of the 18th century, “human beings are the only living beings to be educated … … human beings You can become human only by education, human beings are nothing other than education made from humans. ” This is a word to emphasize how human beings must live as human beings, and education is an essential step. Possibility and necessity of education are often explained from the specificity of human beings in this way.
Lange felt Martinus J. Langeveld (1905-89), a modern Dutch educational anthropologist, insists on the essence of human beings in the self-evident that all human beings were born and children at the beginning, a unique anthropology Human beings are exactly Homo Educandum homo educandum, “existence that needs education”.
Langefelt states as follows. Indeed, unlike other species of living beings, human beings can not eat, walk or communicate by themselves for quite a long time after birth, and their abilities are not instincts, rather than instincts, a little through care from the surrounding adults It becomes possible every time. A newborn baby does not have the instinct to voluntarily activate the act. However, the dependency of receiving care from the surrounding people is only incorporated. This nature of dependency is used as a principle of explanation that human beings can be educated and that education is necessary, and the explanation principle that education is made meaningful in social and historical context Also.
Kant said in the education lecture lecture mentioned above as follows. “It is noteworthy that education is done only by people who were educated in the past as well.Since it is so, some people do not have training or professions because they are not good teachers for their children ”
Education is an effect that is done from generation to generation, and among the historical and cultural ties that have been continued with the successive cotton, each generation assumes and tells responsibility for the next generation We have repeatedly devised ways of choosing what to do and how to communicate. At that time, it is also closely related to the current culture situation and political / economic way. The German theologian Shriel Maha, in the pedagogy lecture at the University of Berlin in the first half of the 19th century, thought that education is an effect from growth to ungrown generation, and that’s why education is merely He says it is a technology linked to politics rather than technology for human formation.
Education is possible and necessary based on the specificity as a human species, but at the same time, education is possible because human beings have formed society in history and have inherited the society beyond generations It will be necessary as well. [Akio Miyadera]
Educational theory and educational goal theory
Discussions on what kind of education as practice should be done in the “educational purpose theory” is done. In general, the task of educational theory is to draw a human figure which is completed as a result of receiving education. Sometimes the human figure is drawn as a philosophy like an ideal human figure, but in some cases it is drawn at a level that is more realistic, possibly realizable than that. The theory of feasible cases is particularly called “educational goal theory”.
Modern German pedagographer Hellbart wrote “ground education” (1806), a groundbreaking book on the history of education and research, but this includes “led from the purpose of education” Sub-titles are attached. Herbart initially begins thinking about the purpose of that “purpose of education” by considering what intentions and wishes are held by people as they engage in education for children. People have envisioned real objectives such as happiness of children and useful things since going to society as “purpose of education”, but in addition to such “arbitrary purpose” in this world, everyone There must be “inevitable aims” that must be obeyed unconditionally, and Herbart regarded that such purpose is “the purpose of education” that leads “general pedagogy”. That is the purpose of “moral character”. The content of this concept, rather than abstractly speaking in the world of thought that jumped over the experience world, Herbalt has stated in plain language understood according to his artistically rich and unique aesthetics, and understood by the general public . As a method for steadily realizing the “moral character” in the ideological world in the head of each child, HERBART assembled the study “education (pedagogike)”.
As is the case with Herbalt’s educational theory, the purpose of education is commonly stated as a general purpose for anyone. The purpose of education is that educational efforts must be made accordingly, rather than having to let each child reach it. In other words, the purpose of education is to show rules rather than to indicate a goal, and it applies equally to anyone, just like rules for sports events. To that end, the objectives of education must be general as well as public. In the Japanese educational laws and regulations, the “Basic Education Law” located at the top level stipulates in Article 1 that “Education aims to complete personality …”. Educational projects including school must be conducted according to this purpose.
On the other hand, “educational objective” is the objective that aims to make each child actually reach. The goal of education is, in helping Mita well the reality of each and every child, which was specifically assumed the capabilities and qualities you want to give to the child, whether it is actually what extent achieved, the criteria for determining the appropriateness of practice Also. Therefore, it is desirable that educational goals should be described clearly and as clearly as possible. For example, a way to describe educational goals by adapting to invisible capabilities such as thought and judgment to each visible change in behavior is suggested in the 1950s and 1960s America I also have it. That is the “behavioral goal theory”.
In contemporary Japanese school education, this action target theory is relaxed somewhat, and for each subject, several goals for each grade are established and the results of the students are evaluated on the basis of it. This evaluation method is called “point-by-point evaluation”. Educational goal theory closely interacts with the theory of educational evaluation. [Akio Miyadera]
View human and educational table of contents
Social history of education
Besides factual education, education as practice, its history is old with human history. Techniques for child rearing and discipline have been told from conscious parents to children, and each society has been taken over as a guideline to be recognized as “one person.” The tradition of being able to measure the competence as “adult” by cultivating once a day or by taking a rice bale, a bales or a stone stone has been passed down in various places for many years. There also existed a system in which there were several stages of divisions from children to adults and gradually became recognized as a member of the community by going through each rite of passage. They are too rough and practical to be called educational methods or curriculum (curriculum), and they are unique to the region. In Japan, research that investigates customs of child rearing and production of cultural heritage by ethnographic methods and has positioned that tradition as the foundation of Japanese view of education has been done steadily before the Second World War It was. Among them, the achievements of Yuki Yanagida (Yanagita Kunio) , Yasuo Hashiura, Tsuneichi Miyamoto ( Tsuneichi Miyamoto) , Yuki Oto (Otou) are well known. Through their research, it was revealed that Japanese people lived children as gods from God, and at the same time, not only the birth parents but also the public watched the growth of their children together and shared responsibilities for child rearing . Originally, “parent” is not the word that only refers to the creator, but also widens nominators, nurturing parents, masters, bosses, parents, etc. Such people like children raising, living guidance, vocational guidance, living security etc. It meant an association to share.
However, in contemporary society, the child-rearing wisdom that is solidly and solidly done in the area has rapidly collapsed, and the problem that the system that receives and receives it is not functioning is emerging.
As a research example made from a foreigner’s point of view, American cultural anthropologist R · F · Benedict, in his book “Chrysanthemum and Katana” (1946), talked about Japanese education, “Japanese custom of child rearing is Japan It affects the formation of personality personality, especially with respect to the introversion of Japanese and external brutality, it is involved in the adhesion of mother-child relations in early childhood. ”
In Europe, recently, research is undertaken to trace the historical transition of ‘child images’ reflected in the eyes of adults, using a new method of historical studies called social history. French historians Aries, portraits and family over the modern from the Middle Ages, continue to analyze such as historical children’s epitaph, asylum people is a “child” as its own existence that is different from the “adult” (Higo) of It has become empirically clear that it is from the beginning of modern times, not so old thing in history. In general, the “discovery of children” in Western society can be attributed to the modern thinker Rousseau, but in the history of society, it was earlier in the hearts of people (mentality) that it was budding. The actual state of education that has not been left as a record in the history of educational thought, the history of school system, educational policy, etc. has been gradually elucidated at the level of living of the general public. [Akio Miyadera]
Educational research in ancient and medieval times
As long as society shares values with its members, as long as traditional customs and customs are kept intact, there is a need for a revised revision such as “how education should be operated” There is nothing to do. However, as people in various ways of thinking flow into the society, becoming not a unified world, people say, “What value of various values is not conveyed to children Do you have to think about that? Regarding education, the society in which such reflexive thinking was developed rapidly was ancient Greece.
In an ancient Greek city state called “Police”, after the long-standing Peloponnesos war (431 BC – 404 BC), the inflow of gentiles followed one after another, the stability of the country was lost in a short period of time. It was impossible to judge good or bad things only by the tradition that had been inherited so far. The intellectuals trying to derive “good things” and “real things” by working reflexive thinking, not just customs and customs, against the background of the unstable and complicated state of the state Activity began. Intellectuals who became professed to teach young people as “technique” as to how to see “good things” and “true ones” also came to appear. Among the group of intellectuals called “Sophist” like this is the famous Socrates in the history of philosophy.
Socrates is important in the history of education and research, more than anything, “good things” and “genuine things” that should be taught to young people are not sought only in traditional practices of society , And it is in that. Socrates asked the young men and others “What is goodness”, and through dialogue, he gradually pushed the youth into a dilemma (dilemma). Besides, they urged the awareness of “ignorance awareness”, that was meant to know but actually did not know anything, and evoked the desire to explore the truth together. This method of searching for truth unique to Socrates is also called “Socratic method” or “midwifery law” as a method of education. Socrates overturned the common sense of education of “giving knowledge as a technology” and introduced a revolutionary view of education that “Knowledge is a thing to bring about”.
Socrates, himself has not wrote also only of one word, dialogue hen the disciple of Plato wrote (eds.) Some of the words and deeds of Socrates has been recorded. Among them, bet the death of their own (or) only, the person is trying to teach how to live in people was the “Apology” and “Crito”, that I can not seem to teach morality “Menon” and “Proteagoras”, which have taught themselves “teaching” themselves as a trigger, are important as indicators of educational research.
Plato wrote a number of dialogues with Socrates as the main character after the death of Socrates, but gradually began to incorporate his own way of thinking. Especially in the work group which is said to be after the middle term, borrowing the mouth of Socrates, we are developing Plato ‘s own view of the world. It is a world view called idealism and idealism that regards the place where “good things” and “real things” exist as “the world of idea”, distinguishes it from the experience world of this world, it is a dualismual worldview It was. The educational challenge was asked to awaken those engaged in the world of experience and to turn their attention to the world of ideas. Among the “nations” which are considered to be middle term writings, people talk about people who are connected to a cave (chaku) with chains and can not turn back at the entrance. Plato told Socrates that he only believes the shadow on the wall behind the cave is the truth, and it is a philosopher’s intention to turn them back towards the entrance light source The mission states that education must be done in order to train that philosopher. Through the contrast with the ideal, which can be called a philosophy, how to discuss critically the reality and phenomena of the experienced world will be inherited in the name of “Platonism” afterwards.
Aristotle is a student of Plato who studied at Academia of Academia that Plato founded, but unlike Plato, he attempted to press the nature of things carefully by observing the events of nature and the experience world carefully. The way people live is also tied to the nature of the country (police) who was born, and in this sense, humans are “police entities (zones and politicians)” and education can be done in this constraint. Each person has its own virtue, that is, a role (allegiance) by his / her function. In other words, those who are good at making a ship have the virtue of ship making. However, in addition to these individual virtues, there must be “virtues as human beings” that everyone must have, which is how much service to the community to which the person belongs, namely the state Aristotle considers it to be what is determined. In other words, it is meaningless to argue abstractly the virtues of human beings off the community. These ideas, also called “Aristotleism” as well as “Communityism” are stated in Aristotle’s book “Nicomacos Ethics” and are similar to Plato’s “State”, afterwards to the Middle Ages, the Modern era, and the present age It continues to read as a classic of educational research up to.
In ancient Greece, educational research which started with the crisis of the state, gradually became an intention of universality (casorism) with the establishment of the Roman Empire and Christianity of the national religion in the following era of ancient Rome, It will be buried in doctrinal studies. Like Zenon (Xenon of Cyprus) who became the founder of the store faction, we tried to inherit the idea of Aristotle and try to find out the essence (logos) of things as a manifestation thereof in the material, like Cicero, politics While active as a house, some were skeptical about the reality.
Eventually, in the late stage of the Roman Empire, Augustine establishes Christian theology based on the doctrine of “Trinity”. The child’s education was also made as a part of teaching by the church called “catechism” as a teaching of doctrine questions and answers. Generally speaking, educational research is also limited to the development of teaching-based techniques, and issues that have stepped into the purpose of education, such as presenting a new human image, have not been pursued. However, it was not until the modern day that gaze came to be focused on “individuum” meaning “not universal”, that is, “individual as individual” , Those who made Christian doctrine of the Middle Ages had already begun. [Akio Miyadera]
View the ideals and developments of modern education Table of Contents
With the era of modern renaissance, the human figures to be formed will be released from uniform like temples. Educational research will be deployed not only in the development of teaching techniques but also full-scale development, including reworking of human figures to be formed. At that time, criticism was first of all school teachers who forced children to recite catechism and memorize Latin grammar only. In typical Renaissance humanistic writings such as Erasmus and Rabelais, school teachers are often depicted as caricatures, just like church authorities.
Rather than drawing human figures against the background of churches and other authorities, in order to depict human beings in their original form, it is not appealing to intellectual abilities such as reading and writing, but who is like the power of the body and senses It was necessary to focus on the ability to be born as well. In the 16th century, reformers of teaching methods of practicalism (realism realism) to draw new human figures, focusing on the educational power of the real res than the language verbum, successively appeared in various European countries I began to preach the techniques of human formation. Attempts by such teachers, including Ratke, are grand prixes to build a new framework beyond the nation in Europe where a long and peaceful era has been far from religious conflict and conflict of interests among countries It was based on a wish. [Akio Miyadera]
Aspects of Early Education Theory
The greatest teacher of modern times is the Czech comenius. While the country was faced with a thirty year war, Comenius spoke about the realization of world peace through reform of the teaching law while fighting escape in Japan and abroad. Its main work, “Great Teaching (Didactica Magna)” (1657), is written with the aim of showing “a universal technique of teaching everything to everyone”. Technique of the professor shown there is, for example, a technique modeled on nature such as that it is important to teach by grasping the time, so that the plants will bloom and bloom according to the seasons, and fruits, and craftsmen Techniques learned from manual work (work) ‘s techniques, etc. are focused on, and they are described in a systematic manner with easy-to-understand talks that anyone can understand. In addition, “World drawing (Orbis Pictus)” (1658) created as a textbook includes illustrations showing real objects, Czech, German and Latin describing it, together with “all people” It is suggested that it is subject to education. Comenius conceived reform of the teaching method technique under the prospect of the realization of the new world and the formation of the carrier of the new world.
French philosopher Rousseau is also undertaking education theory while facing a collapsing social society and a civil society trying to be born again. “Emile” which depicted a new human figure while pursuing the growth process of a child named Emile was published in 1762 in the same year as “Social Contract theory” which showed a new social image in place of a social structure . The beginning of the “social contract theory” that “human beings are born as free, yet connected to the chain everywhere” is “everything is good when leaving the hands of those who create all things, “Everything gets worse if you move on,” he said. Modern people who were freed from the status system and were able to mix each other in a free position created a new social system called civil society. There, people are free as “human (Onm)”, but mutually obliged as “citizen (sitwaiyan)”. People trying to balance this way of being as a human being and citizen’s way of thinking can not be either eventually. A modern man who will be knocked down by such a dilemma will be forced to discourage children from having desires so that their desires do not go beyond the scope of their own need and to prevent only knowledge from spreading in advance of experience , It will be educated to follow only the inevitability of things. Instead of teaching children one after another like the Illuminati, an educational method is recommended that keeps the child away from external stimuli so that it can not stimulate unnecessary desire. Rousseau thinks that Rousseau is the original education, rather than “positive passive education” rather than positive. What came to such a view of education is that in civil society where German philosopher Hegel will soon be regarded as a “system of desires”, people will not be losing their own, It was to prevent the way of life from going out.
The Swiss Pestalozzi who was a reformer of popular education is also working on education theory to rescue the people from the political turmoil due to the civil war following the French Revolution and the drastic change of lifestyle following the industrial revolution. Just like Rousseau, Pestalozzi also thought that enlightenment activities through dissemination of knowledge alone would not help save those in the new era. Rather than enlightenment activities, assistance to independence is the way to save the people, this is called Pestalozzo “helping to help self”. After failing in the farm management he worked with the people in the first half, Pestalozzi wrote small work “Evening of the Hermit” (1780) and a long educational novel “Leanhardt and Gertrud” (1781 to 1787), among them Happiness for the people appealed to avoid getting involved in the money economy, to defend family members’ household expenditures, and to feel joyful in their familiar living area. Pestalozzi preached that children’s education is what is done only in families where parents and children are connected with godliness and love. Pestalozzi used a family living room as a model to run a school for the people, and based on the experience of practicing there, he devised a general teaching method of primary education. It is shown in the book “Metode” (1800), “How to teach the child about Gertrud (Gertrud Child Education Act)” (1801). This teaching methodology is said to be “intuitive ABC”, it is a procedure that begins with making objects accurately observe, expresses intuitive recognition by words, and makes the concept of things form there were. Segmented process of concept formation is the basic theory to standardize the progressive progress of teaching methods. Pestalozzi himself sometimes calls this “mechanization of the professor” and “psychology”.
Pestalozzi ‘s teaching methodology was later used as a model for teacher training in Germany and the rest of Europe and the United States as well. It will eventually be brought to Japan by international students of Japan via the American University of Oswego. That is the teaching method in the early Meiji era called “developmentism”. [Akio Miyadera]
Guiding principles of modern education
Since the early modern era, a human figure corresponding to a new era has been drawn and the principle of the method of education to make that image a reality has been presented, but such educational research can be tailored to “academic” It is from the 19th century. Among them, Germany, who was working on improving the national education system as soon as possible, has created “education” (pedagogik) as a specialized field at university. Following the prehistory of pedagogy begins with a lecture on pedagogy by researchers belonging to the Philosophy Department, mainly at the German university in the latter half of the 18th century. Among them was Kanthisberg University Kant, others, Kale University of Niemeyer August Hermann Niemeyer (1754-1828) and others. Many of them tend to be compatible with how the admission of individuals’ free will and the intervention to the will of the individual are compatible with the philosophy of Kant and Fichte, which was the mainstream of the philosophy of the time I tried to define key concepts of pedagogy such as “education (air tea)”, “professor (unterilitz)”, etc., while tackling the difficult question of how to do it. [Akio Miyadera]
Herbalt’s education theory
It is Hellbart that finally made education theory from free philosophy and finished to self-sustaining academics among people called such “educational pedagographer”. Pedagogy is a discipline related to a practical problem of how to form the thought field in the head of a child, and if it is acknowledged that there is a free will on the part of the child, formation effect That thing will not be done. Herbart regarded it as a matter of pedagogy to explore what kind of mechanism the thought world is moving, not pedagogical discussion. Herbalt tried to fulfill its task using the theory of unique representational mechanics. It is a theory that explains the thought field in the head as a combination of representation and representation and self-movement of repulsion, by decomposing knowledge acquired by children into representations (images). According to this theory, forces like intention are forces born as a result of the combination of representations. The effect of directing knowledge transmission like a professor as a subject also leads to education of intention depending on how to combine representations. The theory of “teaching professors”, that is, educational teaching theory was at the heart of Herbart’s education science.
Herbalt ‘s later work “Pedagogy lecture outline” stipulates that “Pedagogy is an academic depended on psychology that depends on ethics for the purpose of education and ethics.” This two-sided characterization has made the academic field of pedagogy a kind of applied science, as well as permitting specific objectives to be introduced into education from the state and others. Ziller Tuiskon Ziller (1817-1882), the line Wilhelm Rein (1847-1929) who succeeded Herbalt from the middle of the 19th century to the latter half are called “Hellbarts school”. By them, pedagogy has not only strengthened the academic character for teaching technology but also the moral purpose that all professors have to awaken, coupled with the educational purpose of nationalism such as affection for the local community It began to come. The Herbert school of pedagogy influenced the public education site greatly, in place of the teaching method of developmentism introduced to Japan in the latter part of the Meiji era and was promoted before that. One hour and one hour classes at elementary school were able to proceed with five stages of “preliminary · presentation · comparison · summary · application” (5 step teaching method), urged standardization of public education . In addition, backing was given to the organization of curriculum subjects which made “Masamoto” the leading subject. [Akio Miyadera]
Diltai’s educational philosophy
In the latter half of the nineteenth century, workers began to awaken to class consciousness and socialist ideas gradually penetrated among the public. Liberalism thought against it occurred, the unity of society as a whole has been lost. In such a critical social situation, in educational research too, so that doubts will be held against the fact that the norm has been posted uniformly in the practice of education under the name of “pedagogy” so far Became. Backed by the complicated social situation, German Diltayi is asking “Is there any pedagogy that is ubiquitously relevant to any society?” Like Rousseau, idealizing a human figure that can suppress her own desires, or making a human figure with moral character ideal like Herbalt, from the perspective of Diltai, the history of each society It is necessary under the circumstances, and not any educational purpose applies universally. Diltai regarded the issue of education people had been thinking has only been given from the history.
Despite these historical and relativistic standpoints, Diltai believes that everyone shares the fundamental, “biological” nature of being “living” in a sense, and to others I acknowledged that there was a fundamental tendency to hold a sense of solidarity to human beings and tried to aim for the reconstruction of social communities by nurturing such “feelings” in a more moral direction. If we had a universal purpose in education, we thought that we could not find it unless we traced back to the spirit of a human being who created culture, rather than culture itself. [Akio Miyadera]
Dewey’s Educational Thought
J · Dewey, a renowned philosopher of American pragmatism, also fulfilled his thought while receiving a wealth of stimulus from various people in the thought situations of the late nineteenth century when new ideas such as socialism and evolution theory gathered. I did. At the end of the 19th century, the elementary school at the University of Chicago attended experimental education for children and the results were published in “School and Society” (1899). In this book, Dewey also covers the collapse of the community, the community, as a matter of education. People of several generations ago have shared production, distribution and consumption together in the same community, but with the penetration of the factory system, production concentrated in cities, distribution has been concentrated, children For me it has become impossible for me to realize why our consumption life is supported and by whom. Dewey tried to compensate for the lack of such social perception by making handwork into the school. Children are subjected to a series of manual work from cotton work to production of clothing. In this process, we learn the process of historical progress of human knowledge and technology, realize the significance of division of labor and cooperation, Furthermore, we learn the habit of focusing on work while thinking with purpose. Dewey thought that these knowledge and qualities are indispensable elements for living in the industrial society. Dewey’s educational philosophy is sometimes spoken by the slogan “learning by doing”, but this slogan is not only about the importance of the method principle of educational activities being told. Recognizing that it is no longer possible to form the qualities of human beings who live in the industrial society simply by sitting in a chair and learning from textbooks. Incidentally, this slogan itself is not of Dewey. [Akio Miyadera]
Makarenko and collectivism
In the first half of the 20th century, Soviet educational practitioner Makarenko tried to draw a human figure that could take on a new task of building a socialist state. Makarrenko practiced education that does not allow children’s actions based on selfish egos, taking advantage of the experience of retraining delinquent juveniles. However, it was education made through the maintenance of discipline in a group of children, not managementism education to enforce unilateral subordination from teacher to child. The teacher also participates as a member of the group, the whole school acts as a group, and each child is given a contribution to the group. Such a spirit that collective benefit (collect bismism) is the spirit that the whole profit is placed higher than the individual’s interest and individual happiness is guaranteed only after the whole profit is secured. This spirit of collectivism has emerged from Makarrenko’s philosophy emphasizing “as much as possible demand for human beings and as much respect as possible for humans”.
This collectivism education was also introduced to Japan after the Second World War and had influence as a methodology of living instruction in the 1950s and 1960s. While creating a group in the classroom and acting as a group under the leader called “nuclear”, we encourage each child to recognize themselves as individuals, and as an attitude as a member of the group I will nurture. “One person for everyone, everyone for one” was a slogan that the teachers who promoted this lifestyle education movement liked. Such practice was not aimed at the creation of a human figure that fits the socialist society, but as a countermeasure against the youth culture which had declined in a way of self-oriented life, Japanese teachers came up with learning from Macarenko . [Akio Miyadera]
Aspects of educational reform movement in the 20th century
In the eyes of the 20th century, Swedish social activist Ellen Kay wrote “Children’s Century” (1900). Kay predicted that during the new century to come, Kids will be freed from adults’ selfish control and the happiness of their children will be guaranteed truly. However, the intention of Kay was to find that society should adopt the idea of eugenics as it leaves only excellent species in posterity, and it contained problems. According to Kay’s prophecy, in the 20th century, children were released from child labor, school education was not only guaranteed, but also from the way of education forced to learn by means of whip and punishment . However, whether such educational reforms have truly brought about the happiness of children is another problem.
From the 19th century to the 20th century, education practitioners and theorists who emphasized “new education” or “reform education” appeared all over the world. What they commonly felt was reforming society itself by reforming the educational method of children. In Germany, Kelsen Steiner tried to apply Activism education Dewey advocated to form “citizen” as a future national / society player. He said that future schools must be “work schools (part-time jobs)”. In working as a worker, children learn not only to “thinking according to things” required by work, but also acquire the virtue of diligence and the spirit of service. The moral educational effect of the work, Kelsen Steiner noted. Also in the same German, children were separated from the city, put in the suburban school, and there was also a lot of intention to train human resources who will stroke overseas in the future through collective life there. Such a school is called “rural education building”.
Contrary to the educational reform linked to the national objective, there were people who entrusted the transformation of social system to educational reform, not being satisfied with the current state of society. Neil Alexander Sutherland Neil (1883-1973), who played a part in Britain’s new education, is typical. Neil tried to reform the educational situation that reflects the British society that is divided into the dominant class and the dominant class. To that end, Neil thought that it is important for the future children not to budge the feelings of trying to rule people or the feelings of living dependent on people. The reason why distorted feelings spring up is that Neil considered it to be a guilty sensation as a result of child’s being poured into morality and religion at home and school. Especially children are expected to pursue sexual thoughts and actions, only purity is expected, so from that oppression, we will live a way of living full of falsehood. So the task of education had to be to liberate children from repression, above all. Neil created an educational environment that allows students maximum freedom of judgment, such as abolishing the attendance at the Summer Hill School of the school that he founded, and allowing smoking. It was W. Reich, who developed disciples of Freud and psychoanalytical techniques, that gave ideological accommodation to Neil’s practice. Reich was known as a left-wing psychoanalyst who linked sexual release and political liberation, but Neil also created a freedom by liberation from oppression, created a society as a community of its free people I tried to change it. Founded in 1921, Summerhill Gakuen has survived as a model school of free education as of the year 2000 after the death of Neil. [Akio Miyadera]
New education movement in Japan
The swelling of the educational reform movement under the name of “New Education” has also reached Japan. Since it mainly concentrates in the Taisho Period, “Taisho New Education” and “Taisho Free Education” are also called “Taisho Free Education”, but the origin of it started as a reform of the unitistic teaching method at the end of Meiji era. Kijiro Higuchi (1871 – 1917), one of the pioneers of the new educational movement in Japan, brought the children out of school and made an excursion while touching various scenes and cultures of the city, In the Meiji 30s, practices such as doing lessons using materials as the material have already been done. It is a lesson through experience and activities. Also, at this time, the idea of how to think from the viewpoint of a child, that is, “child-centeredism” is also emerging as a class that has been seen only by teachers so far. Along with that, the term “learning” came to appear in educational terms.
“Learning” is also a term that has been used for a long time as Chinese, Japanese as well as “education”, but as a translated word to convey the meaning of English “learning learning” from the end of the Meiji era to the Taisho period It began to be diverted. Higuchi, in “Integralism new teaching methods” (1899), “Professor imposed on children the academic, this by stimulating the children, tighten cause some sort of activity, reason (by) more than Te (with ) It is said that children develop a certain kind of development and become vulgar, “he stated” scholarship “as Japanese corresponding to” learning “. Tomi Tanimoto (Tanimoto Tomeri) (1867-1946) is, in the “New Education Lecture” (1907), the principle of “Professor Hodo students (sidewalk)It is in the school that he learns by himself “, and it is devoted to” learning “with” self-study “. On the other hand, at a “branch office-type dynamic Education Act” of Heiji Oikawa (1875-1939) (1912), because the unexpected not have made a habit of “learning, children are trivial to graduation just before (trivial) of “If you leave the hands of the teacher to bother the teacher’s hands, there is no power to do independent research at all,” he explains the necessity of attaching a habit to learn to himself by himself, Law “is proposed. Then, in “Learning Principle” (1923) of Takeshida Kinoshita (1872-1946) which is one of the theoretical achievements of the Taisho Free Educational Movement, “Learning” became a keyword and the task of education and teaching Will be told to be told. Kinoshita says, ” We learn to think and learn to appreciate, act to act, psychologically speaking learning is related to the whole of mental action. (ii) states that in that “it shall perform the good and suddenly asked himself by improving the living.
In this way, the term “learning” has come to be used after “academics” and “self-study”. Until then, as the word “professor” indicated, teaching from the side of teachers was mainstreamed, but by the emergence of the word “learning” it is said that children learn from the viewpoint of the child Teacher activities came to be important. The authors of the books mentioned above are researchers who have instructed the new educational movement in Japan theoretically. [Akio Miyadera]
Modernization of education
It was the success of the first launch of the world’s first artificial satellite by the Soviet Union (1957), after the Second World War, that the nation made a commitment to reforming educational methods. In the United States, this “Sputnik · Shock” has made me realize the standing of science and technology, and in the subjects of various fields, including the subjects of natural sciences such as science and mathematics, we have decided to advance the contents at the same time. This trend later became a global trend in the 1960s and was called “modernization of education”. In the United States, efforts were made to reflect state-of-the-art results in science corresponding to each of them in the field of physics, science, biology, geography in particular not only in universities but also in elementary and junior high school subject contents . The leader in educational method reforms in this field was JS Bruner of Harvard University professor. Bruner proposed a new way of educating “New Look” based on cognitive psychology, once again with the conventional educational method based on Dewey’s activism-empiricism education theory.
In his book “Educational process” (1960) with great influence, Bruner is confident under the belief that “anyone at any age can teach in any way as it is” , And has proposed a method of “structuring of teaching materials”. It is a way to revive such a way as to limit the range of knowledge only in the world of children’s experience, like the method of activism and empiricism, to master the science according to the systematic nature and to the state-of-the-art science, It is a way to arrange the basic knowledge to be made. In doing so, it is necessary to distinguish the concepts constituting knowledge from those corresponding to trunks, those corresponding to branches, and those corresponding to leaves, while changing the weighting of each, He insisted. It is important to make sure the fundamental and fundamental concepts corresponding to the trunk to be understood, which is the key to solving more complicated problems in the future. In order to make learning such basic and basic concepts emphasize the necessity to make learning “from learning for something” to “learning for its own interest” He advocated “endogenous motivation theory”.
The modernization of education has an influence on the curriculum administration in Japan as well. In the 1960s, in conjunction with the demand for high economic growth, importance was placed on the subjects of natural sciences such as science and the subjects of basic academic systems such as national language and mathematics (mathematics), and the number of dividend times was large However, the social department which was a major subject of ‘New Education’ reconstructed immediately after World War II is not only because the dividend time has been shunned, but also with the retreat of activityism and empiricism, the memory of knowledge It was tilted to the side and forced to become a mere skeleton.
The modernization of education is not to call children’s learning motivation to the extent that we can expect unless we pursue selection of subject contents in parallel in order to ask children to learn advanced contents It has been pointed out. As was pointed out in the 1970s, many lethargic children were learning to learn. Therefore, under the goal of “giving children relaxation”, the time of educational activities (“special activities”) other than subjects is increased among the contents of education at school, each school creates ingenuity Time (“discretion of time”) to freely utilize it has been compulsory in the curriculum. On the extension of such curriculum reforms, educational reforms to give children “power to live” and to realize “education of the mind” were introduced in the 1980s as “extraordinary councils reporting directly to the government” Education Council (trial examiner) “was developed mainly. Later educational reforms are being promoted not only in the reform of educational content and methods but also on the scale related to the general social system of education, including reform of educational system and administrative ways. And it is increasingly becoming a political issue in conjunction with the way of the nation and society from the 20th century to the 21st century, and these movements are not only local phenomena only in Japan, but global countries where developed countries are all working together It is a phenomenon. [Akio Miyadera]
Educational rights and learning rights
The idea of modern education becomes more clear by investigating the problem of educational rights and learning rights. The awareness of self creates human rights thought, modern educational thought discovered child’s right based on this human rights thought. And in this educational administration theory, the organization and management of public education for guaranteeing the educational authority of citizens has become its basic problem.
Educational rights usually belong to “educational internal authority” and “educational external authority”. The former is the authority concerning the determination and implementation of specific educational content in educational activities, and the latter is the educational administrative authority on the content of education. Educational rights means ‘right to education’. On the other hand, the learning right generally means “the right to receive education”, and based on the constitutional human rights on education under Article 26, paragraph 1 of the Constitution of Japan, the position of the person who is educated and learned The content is that it should be voluntary and positive. [Mitsuo Otani, Masahiro Kamiyama]
Historical development of educational rights
Early in the modern era, the approval of children’s rights was generally found, and educationally the right to take children’s education, that is, the right to learn was discovered. This discovery involved two problems. The first is a problem related to the formation of the inner surface of a child, education is regarded as a personal matter that the state power can not interfere, and the private affair of education (the idea that educating people in civil society is private affairs) is demanded It was done. Secondly, it is a matter of respecting the autonomy of children in educational methods, stuffed education is strongly denied, and it was claimed that the preferred form of education is personal guidance at home by parents and tutors. [Mitsuo Otani, Masahiro Kamiyama]
The birth of a school
Eventually, social circumstances that required school occurred. The problem of how to make use of the idea of modern education in a school called educational institution became a new educational task. In solving this new educational task, the independence of education from public authority and the organization of private affairs of education still had a large weight. Recognition that schools are established by public expenses, public schools are free, child enrollment is not forced to settle. And education was limited exclusively to intellectual education, education of religion and morality was excluded from public education, gradually the secularity of education penetrated. In this way the outline of public education was gradually revealed. [Mitsuo Otani, Masahiro Kamiyama]
Transformation of Modern Educational Thought
As the times advanced, the capitalist regime was established, and furthermore industrial capitalism was established, the principles of modern educational thought changed little by little. Specifically, national intervention in popular education was requested, one view of public education was established, and here, the first step of major revision of the conventional principle was taken. Eventually there was an expansion of educational opportunities for the public when the industrial capitalism was established in the latter half of the 18th and early 19th centuries. Establishment of factory schools and some corporate factory schools was planned, and the mass education initiative was shifted from the old power to the emerging bourgeoisie hands. In this way, the public educational idea that responds to the capitalist reality had features of the so-called triple structure of educator Horio Teruhisa (1933-). That is, the idea of denying educational intervention of the state and the way of state intervention to popular education live together. The advanced countries of Europe also entered the latter half of the 19th century, the classical civil society changed greatly, progressed to monopolistic capitalism, the state turned into a welfare state and a mass state. And gradually the working class self-educational thought reached the flowering period. At the same time, the state began teaching mass education as a moral teacher. [Mitsuo Otani, Masahiro Kamiyama]
Changes in educational rights in Japan
In Japan, the national education rights of the King James Version of the Meiji era (King James) in the Constitution (Meiji Constitution) below, in the form of education prerogative or edict principle, was mandated and content determination of education. The educational authority of the nation was completely penetrated by the legislative enactment, each school ordinance (the imperial ordinance) prescribes the subject eye, then the Ministry of Education Ordinance that received the mandate has been instructed (one with entries such as each subject written Each school, based on this doctrine, creates the details of the professor (the one in which the degree and arrangement of annual lesson contents are written). The teacher creates a teaching plan by censorship of the principal. As can be seen from the above description, the emperor’s educational power has been structured to penetrate every corner of school education. However, Japan’s educational reform after the Second World War was based on freedom of the educator. In the hardshiping experience of defeat, Japan’s education has transformed into liberalism and individualism. The enactment of the Education Basic Law has resolved the lapse of the Rule of Education. Educational goal provision of the Basic Education Law that the objective of education is to nurture human beings as voluntary spirit is nothing other than confirmation of the modern educational philosophy of “educational private affairs”.
Moreover, the principle of national intervention in education of the modern educational philosophy, as understood from democracy, decentralization principle, independenceism from general administrative, which are the three major features of the present educational administration system, the state and other powers We do not permit intervention by the Tama. Moreover, “I believe that” the purpose of education must be realized in every place, everywhere “(Article 2 of the Basic Education Act) states the principle of non-authority of education and freedom of education of the people . Looking at this way, the characteristics of the educational authority in modern educational philosophy seem to be the core of the current educational system. [Mitsuo Otani, Masahiro Kamiyama]
View the development table of the National Education System
Generally, in order for the idea of education to be realized, it is necessary to institutionalize it. It is because people can expect the idea to be realized only when a system corresponding to the idea is established. [Mitsuo Otani, Masahiro Kamiyama]
Educational opportunity equality and historical development
The most essential part of the modern educational philosophy is to approve children’s rights. Considering the rights of children from the developmental point of view, it means the overall development of the child’s internal forces, and this free development requires equality guarantee of educational opportunities. In other words, the issue of child rights is closely related to the problem of freedom and equality of children in development. And the fundamental principles of institutionalization of this is found, among other things, equally for educational opportunities.
The problem of equality of educational opportunities has already been raised by German religious reformer Luther. He preached the need for children to read the Bible and encourage their enrollment to comprehend the godliness, and forcibly make education free of charge if necessary. In addition, Condorçé, who was one of the leading leaders of the French Revolution, proposed the establishment of a public education organization that frees education from the hands of religious organizations and gives educational opportunities to all citizens without charge. However, the school education in France in the second half of the 18th century was still monopolized by the privileged ruling class, and there were many restrictions by external conditions such as social status and economic status of parents. This trend was remarkable especially in the case of going to university. Moreover, the general public was not even enough to receive primary education. [Mitsuo Otani, Masahiro Kamiyama]
Equal opportunity for education and compulsory education
Equal opportunity for education is achieved by participating in the composition and operation of the educational system, regardless of the state. This is evident in the case of compulsory education. In other words, compulsion of education from the side of the nation appears in the form that parents have an obligation to give their children education. It is an obligation that the state imposes on parents. And since compulsory education is, in principle, free education, it obliges the state to provide free public education. [Mitsuo Otani, Masahiro Kamiyama]
Establishment of unified school and historical development
The problem of equality of educational opportunities is concerned with the realization of a unified school. A unified school is a school system that allows all citizens to receive equal and equal education regardless of position, class, creed or the like. As evidenced by the development history of schools in Europe, firstly, schools from the university for the younger siblings of the ruling class of each era to the primary education stage were established, then the primary school for the ordinary people was established It was. Therefore, many European school systems are double-tracked, and the connection between secondary and higher education institutions and primary schools of the general public was not easily realized.
It was the French Revolutionary Council that began with the school philosophy of the author of Computer Science (1657), the school philosophy of Komenius, and the enthusiasm and seriousness of this concept as a matter of the state. However, its efforts were also vain and, due to financial difficulties, it did not come out in the long run. However, since this proposal and its efforts have been handed down to the countries of Europe and the United States thereafter, and because human thought was understood and disseminated, each country has continued its efforts to realize equality of educational opportunities by a unified school. The United States realized the unified school system of a single line quickly. In addition, the Soviet Union after the revolution of 1917, Germany after the First World War, the UK that established the Butler Education Act of 1944, France that brought up the Langevin – Walloon education reform plan in 1947, We abolished the system and attempted to realize a single wire type. These examples demonstrate that the national education system has been established and developed by institutionalization of equality of educational opportunities based on confirmation of the rights of children.
The above-mentioned encouragement of enrollment, implementation of mandatory and free education, and the realization of a unified school are the footprints of the establishment and development of the national education system. [Mitsuo Otani, Masahiro Kamiyama]
Expansion of educational field · Lifelong education
Progress in modern rapid technological innovation has led to changes in society, changes in human lives, and so on. Changes in society and human way of living, of course, require change in education. In education reform, the expansion of the educational field and various problems of lifelong education are especially notable. Regarding educational fields, three areas of home education, school education, and social education have been discussed and discussed from the past. There, school education was characterized as institutional education, and home education / social education was characterized as non-institutional education and functioned.
To live in a rich substance civilization, simply giving a positive influence / sensitization to children’s growth / development can not be just affirmative. It can be understood from reality that the child’s delinquency is low, the consciousness of budget increases, the vulnerability of the mental attitude ( weakening ) . And again, the importance of home education and social education, and the integration of both with school education came to be noticed. Both parents and social workers, like school teachers, have been responsible for the healthy development of immature young people, demanding the times.
Sometimes it is expected that social education will be more effective for “how to spend live with fulfillment”, as the times seek a diversity of way of life for people and seek a bright solution to the aging problem. People engaged in occupations need to continue learning specialized knowledge and skills as it is necessary to deal with the introduction of new technologies and the desires of endless people. Also as a general situation, there is a need for organizations and organizations that enable people to learn knowledge and skills themselves throughout their lives, such as rapid advances in science and technology, diversified society of living, aging and expansion of leisure time There. Lifelong learning calls for reorganization of educational function of society from dependence on institutionalized education so far. [Mitsuo Otani, Masahiro Kamiyama]
National education system in Japan
The circumstances of the establishment of the national education system in Japan are significantly different from those of European countries. Indeed, in Japan’s school system, imitation and transplantation of the school system in Europe is found somewhat. For example, it is a unified school. But it can be said that it was a spurious unified school. In 1872 (Meiji 5) Ministry of Education issued a “school system” and launched a unified national education system. However, there was no financial backing for that. The school system of the 3rd floor of elementary, secondary, and higher (Kaito) was implemented nationwide by the school district system. I think the effort to realize the unified school system can be evaluated accordingly. However, imitating only the form without the spirit distorted the development of the subsequent national education system. The purpose of the “school system” is to be able to attend school for all citizens regardless of status, gender, rich and poor. However, the school is about to learn to succeed in life, and in that sense the school was said to teach what it would be useful for each person. As a result, the cost of the school is required to be borne by the beneficiary in principle, and a thorough centralized system was adopted. What you notice by analyzing the contents of the “school system” is that children learn the right to learn as rights, but that is not supported by “child freedom”. Educational expense was not free, it was a burden on the beneficiaries. In this way, equal opportunities for education could not have come out of the field of theory.
Through the middle term before the Meiji Era to the latter period, the Taisho period, the early Showa era, the Peace Treaty Convention (1952 entry), the National Education System of the Unified School consistently maintained its position, but its characteristics at each period Contents have changed drastically. And, in the Showa era after the middle period, that is, under the occupation after World War II and after the peace treaty, for the first time, the unified school aims to realize the rights (freedom) of children, realization of modern educational philosophy is an issue It became it. [Mitsuo Otani, Masahiro Kamiyama]
Education in Japan
Education in Japan can be broadly divided into two categories: the educational era of continental culture dependence first, the education era of Japanese culture awareness, and the education era of Western culture ingestion, and it can be thought that it has reached the modern highly educated education age it can. Below is an overview of the history of Japanese education. [Mitsuo Otani, Masahiro Kamiyama]
Continental cultural dependence education
From the ancient times to the Kamakura period, it is considered to be an educational era of continental culture dependence. Oshin (Ojin) when the Emperor Baekje (stupid) Ali from a straight Toki (Achiki) crocodile (crocodile) is arriving in Japan. In 552 Buddhism was introduced from Baekje. The spread of Buddhism promoted the advancement of academic, art and craft. Prince Shotoku is, 607 Sui from around the year (spinal) dispatched the ambassador-study monk-students in, was to learn, such as Sui of political and Academic Affairs is a developed country. In addition, Emperor Tenjo ( Empress Tenji) created Empress (Shosoji) . Strategy is the first public school in Japan.
(1) Educational circumstances in the Nara era 710 (Wako 3) The capital moved to Nara, the Nara era began. Was accompanied to the envoys, study abroad monk-students Nitto (Nitto) , and also many of the great scholar (scholar) is, pronounced: to grouse was naturalized. The first educational system in Japan was laid by the Taikoku Ritsu (great Ritsurusu ) of 701 (Takara 1) . One university dormitory was established in the state capital, and one national university was established in each country.
(2) Educational circumstances in the Heian era 794 (Extended calendar 13) The capital moved to Kyoto, was named Heiankyo, the Heian era began. The characteristic of this era is the tendency of Chinese culture assimilation, Chinese literature has developed, editing of poetry collection, editing of poetry collection, edition of Hiragana and Katakana characters were made, Waka and Japanese sentences developed. In terms of education, university dormitories and national studies whose main purpose is to discover and train personnel to be appointed to the officials have repeatedly undergone reforms. However, it did not reach to prevent its decline. On the other hand, Sogaishin Chisen established by Kukai was educating people of the world, regardless of class or priest, and it was flourishing. [Mitsuo Otani, Masahiro Kamiyama]
Education of Japanese culture awareness
Eventually the world greeted the education era of Japanese culture awareness. It encompasses the Kamakura period, from the North and the North to the Edo period. 1192 (Kihisa 3) Yoritomo (even) has founded the shogunate in Kamakura. The characteristic of Kamakura culture is found in the consciousness of Japanese culture symbolized by the new style of Japanese-Han mixed. In terms of education, officials and private schools have been abolished, and education has become active in non-schools, that is, in homes, scholars’ homes, and temples. At that time, the temple was mainly primary education, and the special education of high school was the center of Zen Buddhist monastery and school of recommendation. In social education, Buddhist new sects such as Nembuto, Nichiren (Senbun) , Zen and Zen sect have been educated the people. Then, around paperback was established to, books, paintings, utensils, etc. is collected and collections, educate a large number of people (enlightenment) it was.
(1) Educational circumstances in the North-South morning era 1336 (Yemoto 1, Jo 3 ) The Emperor Godaigo moved to Yoshino (Yoshino) . On the one hand, Takauji Ashikaga (Takauji Ashikaga) if there is in Kyoto Guangming (SaiwaiAkira) was fielded Council as the Emperor. It is the so-called North-South morning era. Generally, there is an idea that this era has been entirely awaited, but from the viewpoint of culture and education, independence of the people’s consciousness and Japanese thought can be found and you can be aware of the transition to education of Japanese culture. Although academics are active in research of Zhuzhi University, classical research such as “Genji Monogatari” and “Kokin Waka Collection” was also popular. “Garden study visits (Oikei Orihara)”Reminds us of the practice of educational practice at that time mainly based on commoners. And public educational institutions were completely abolished, and child education by monks (so-soo) , that is, temple education kept their mind.
(2) Educational circumstances in the Muromachi period 1392 (Yuan 9, Akuta 3) Yoshino ‘s court and the court of Kyoto coalesced, Mr. Ashikaga caught the political power. It was the beginning of the Muromachi Period. Of this era coup after another, junior dominating senior say the world (junior dominating senior) was the era of, common people edification celebrated its heyday, was social education is also active. Also, the Ashikaga School of Shimozuna ( Ashikaga City, Tochigi Prefecture) carried out education centered on Confucianism and occupied the central position of the Kanto Bunriori. In addition, the seminario, the Collectio, which was founded in the Tensho period (1573-1592), has been successful not only for the Christian missionary work and missionary work but also for the transmission of Western science and culture. Speaking of household education, we learned about people’s daily habits, methods of promoting entertainment, etc. by utilizing their families, “flower books” etc.
(3) Improvement of feudal society, completion and collapse As the age of development advanced, the feudal society in the modern era was developed, completed and eventually collapsed. Oda Nobunaga Azuchi (Azuchi)The period of about 300 years from 1576 (Tensho 4) which was built in 1971 (Meiji 4) where the new administrative system was implemented by the clan clan store after the long Edo era, corresponds. For people of feudal feudal societies in the early years, the status was an absolutely incompetent one. However, as soon as the commercial capitalist and monetary economic era arrived and established, people realized that the status system was contrary to human nature, and in that sense began to feel falsehood in samurai-centered society. First of all, I will talk about the education of the samurai who served as the protagonist of the feudal society, then clarify the education of the common people.
(4) Educational circumstances of samurai and common people in the Edo era As for educational institutions of samurai, home cram school and private private school are listed first. The private school was the place where the Confucians who served the shogunate and various clans gained the inner consciousness of the shogunate and clans and taught the children of the bannerman / clan. Among them, Hayashi ‘s private school Shohei Shohei (Shoheizaka Academy ) who was protected by the Edo shogunate was the biggest one. In private school, cram schools such as Nakae Fujiki (Toju) and Itoshi Itoh (jinsei) were representative ones, but the privately held experts who did not serve the shogunate and various clans voluntarily established private schools Met. Next is the domain of school. The domain of the clan was established in the respective territory, around the time of the establishment of Changpyeong.
The education of the common people got hit by Terakoya exclusively. The educational content of Terakoya was primarily reading, writing and abacus (abacus) , but there were places to teach calligraphy, tea, flower arrangement, sewing etc. Next, there was a hometown (gang) in something slightly higher than Terakoya . Mitsunari Ikeda (Mitsumasa)There are 123 hand clinics in the Okayama clan and so on. In addition, the educational movement of adults has flourished since the middle of modern times. The shogunate and various clans tried to educate the common people by the teacher’s office and the teacher’s book, and tried to maintain the order of feudal society. In the middle of the Edo period, a psychological movement that originated from Ishida Umewa occurred. Mental science purported to explain the teachings of saintsily plainly, based on Shinto (Shinto) , Confucianism, Old village studies, Buddhism, etc. In addition, social education campaign such as Ninomiya Takunori and Ohara Yuzaki was active. [Mitsuo Otani, Masahiro Kamiyama]
Education of Western culture intake
In 1872 (Meiji 5) “school system” was promulgated, the national education system started. The challenging task of Japan at that time was fostering industry and national soldiers. The problem surrounding the achievement of this task featured the development of the modern education system in Japan.
(1) Publication of the “school system” in 1859 The “school system” modeled on the French school system and its utilitarian view of education was learned from the United States. Education ordinance was enacted in 1879 (Meiji 12), which was based on American freedom. The revised education order was enacted the following year, and the first step of reaction was begun. In other words, the tendency that the fundamental spirit of education is in Confucian morality has come to surface. This tendency was decisive by the emergence of the 1890 educational keynote word .
(2) Transition of Educational Thought Import and Educational Methods Since 1879, 1880 (Meiji 12, 13), the developmentistic teaching method of Pestalozzy and Utilitarianism and naturalism educational thought of H · Spencer were imported, In 1887, Herbert school education theory was introduced. The so-called five-step teaching method (preliminary / presentation / comparison / summary / application) is now preferred to be exercised in the place of educational practice.
(3) Promotion plan for practical education The Meiji government promoted capitalist industries, planned for the realization of Fukoku, and made plans to actively promote practical education for that. Early in the Meiji era, practical education did not progress as much as we expected, as the external conditions to promote industry were not mature enough. However, as the Japanese capitalist economy develops, practical education will continue to expand.
(4) Textbook examination system and nationalization system In the education in the Meiji Era, the problem of national control of textbooks had an important meaning. In a word, it helped organize the ideas of the people uniformly. In 1886 (Meiji 19) textbook examination system was enacted, this system was operated for a while, but 1902 (Meiji 35) textbook doubt case occurred, and in 1903 the textbook nationalization system was established in 1903 . This system continued until 1947 (Showa 22).
(5) The New Educational Movement in the Taisho Period and the Fascism in the Showa Period In Taisho Education, Taisho democracy and the new educational movement are noteworthy. The educational philosophy of this period is the introduction of democracy thought and emphasis on child psychology. This can be seen from Kelshen Steiner ‘s exercise education theory in Germany and American Dewey’ s theory of immediate education for life introduced, as well as the fact that eight major education claims were advocated in the country and so on. And the free topic composition written at the time in the educational world at the time, and the publication of the magazine “Red Bird”, was clearly based on child-centric education theory.
Development of capitalism naturally expanded higher education institutions. Public technical colleges, high schools other than the number school of old school high schools, etc. were both enhanced in quality and quantity. However, from 1917 (Taisho 6) to March 1919, the extraordinary education council, which was the advisory body of the prime minister, was extremely critical for the tide of Taisho democracy and every time there was a chance, the emperor nationalism I strongly urged the people concerned to establish ethics based on.
The financial crisis of 1927 (Showa 2), the global economic crisis of 1929, the outbreak of the Manchurian Incident of 1931 (bobbing) , Shanghai of 1932 (Shanghai)Japan and the United States of England and the Netherlands in the early Showa period in 1941 against the accident and the Fifth Five-Five Incident, the 22nd Incident in 1936, the 1937 Sino-Japanese War, the series itself of the war and the case above Met. Therefore, it can be said that the Japanese education at this time was developing with the correspondence to fascism as its axis. Among them, the five and fifteen cases and the twenty-six cases caused Japanese education to shift towards fascism. And the report of the Council for Reforming the School of Law in 1935, and the report of the Council of Education in 1937 more decided this inclination. Elementary school was renamed the national school in 1940, and the training of “empire citizens” was the purpose of education. However, in order to survive war, super nationism and militarization became the priority education policy.
(6) Departure of Postwar Education In August 1945, World War II, Japan responded and accepted acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration. The postwar education developed based on the Japanese Constitution of 1946, the Basic Education Act of 1947, and the School Education Law. First, the school system of the six, three, three and four system was established. This is the realization of the principle of equality of educational opportunities, and it was based on coeducational cooperation in principle. Another social studies was born as a new subject. The social studies are subjects aimed at fostering the ability and attitude to make schoolchildren understand social life as a whole, participate in the change and development. Along with this, the prewar morning department was abolished, but in 1958 “moral time” was specialized in elementary and junior high school and it was decided to be implemented.
The content and method of education changed completely. The content of the education, as a voluntary organization, began with problems of the curriculum type, organizational problems and other issues such as modernization and selection of educational content. In educational methods, unit learning that emphasizes problem law, project method, discussion method, etc. is adopted, further problem solving learning, discovery learning, example study learning, program learning by educational equipment, etc. have been carried out. And as a result of continuing research on educational evaluation, the way of objective learning and evaluation spread.
In addition, the textbook verification system has been continued after World War II, with the elimination of national textbooks. Meanwhile, the maintenance of the testing mechanism has been repeated. In the examination of “New Nihonkan” (textbook for high school ) written by Saburo Ienaga, the first textbook litigation in 1965 (1957) , the second lawsuit in 1967, the third litigation in 1984 In August 1997, the third case was finalized, and the lawsuit over 32 years ended. [Mitsuo Otani, Masahiro Kamiyama]
Education of high education era
 Lifelong education In a society with a high degree of education, school education gives the impression that it has further promoted on the surface, institutionally and formally. However, rapid changes in the social structure, waves of technological innovation, increased leisure time and the like have made people feel more aware of the need for lifelong education. It is impossible to survive only with the result of limited school education, and it is impossible for people to survive their lives by acquiring vocational professional knowledge and skills throughout their lives, constant acceptance of social learning, cultural and artistic activities and community service I noticed the necessity to participate in the activities as my own life problem. UNESCO’s Declaration on Learning Rights (1985) is an aggregation of its thought.
 Pathological phenomena of education “rich society” has produced some serious educational pathology phenomena.
(1) problem of child delinquency
(2) problem of lack of life experiences of
children (3) problem of school maladjustment of children
. (1) is found in domestic violence, school violence, runaway, thinner play, impure sexual behavior, etc. In either case, it is difficult to solve by symptomatic therapy, and it is necessary to respond properly structurally. Also, (2) does not satisfy the thrill and adventurous spirit either by not being able to properly ignite with a match, playing with friends unexpectedly, climbing to a high place or walking narrow places, or plant cultivation or small animals I can not taste the fresh feeling felt by breeding, etc. The problem of lack of life experiences of children has led to the proposal for the formation and strengthening of ‘survival activity’ (ability to survive). Focus on the importance of the role that children experience in such experiences as living in the nature of Yamano, making birds friends, feeling the preciousness of trees and flowers, that is, experiences in extracurricular activities plays the character of that child There is a need. (3) is a problem of maladjustment against the background of stress, such as bullying, school refusal, violence, etc., in academic and educational society.
 International Understanding Education · Peace Education · Human Rights Education In order for Japan to contribute to the world and speak in the information age, in particular,
(1) education for international understanding
(2) peace education
is necessary. Regarding (1), Japan has poor resources, so speaking of contributing to the world can be considered to give outstanding achievements in fundamental theories of science. At the same time, learning social skills of interpersonal relationships is vital. As Japanese people have lived in the island country, Japanese people were generally weak on learning foreign languages and learning various interpersonal skills. However, overcoming this situation, Japanese people need to acquire cultural and concepts that are increasingly accepted internationally. Speaking of peace education in (2), Japan is the world’s first atomic bombed in A-bomb, and also because it is a country that unambiguously urges war abandonment to the constitution, it is said that because of the survival and prosperity of humanity, It is a mission of the Japanese to strive for realization. The problem of peace is believed to be that the Japanese leader can gain cooperation from the hearts of the people of the world. Regarding human rights
Next, I would like to look at the history of education in the US, Germany, China, Russia and Indonesia.
Both of these countries have been deeply involved with Japan over the past and present. In the case of the United States, education theory of Dewey and Kill Patrick, recommendations on educational reform of the American education mission team who came to Japan since the end of World War II, and the like are conceivable. In Germany, the influence of German pedagogy on Japanese education theory is remarkable, especially in the field of educational philosophy. Pestalozzi and Froebel’s educational philosophy, and psycho-scientific educational theory have influenced the development of educational philosophy in our country. And in the case of China, the arrival of Confucian culture has contributed to forming the mental attitude of the Japanese. Without the influence of long cultures from China, it is difficult to state the spiritual formation of the Japanese. Furthermore, in the case of Russia, the relationship with educational issues in Japan is not so simple as to say in a word. However, the former Soviet education theory based on experiences, such as the relationship between individuals and groups, the theory of activity outside the school (activity theory outside the school), has given valuable perspectives to elucidate the educational problems in Japan. Finally in the case of Indonesia, from 1942 to 1945, I recall a lot of misery under World War II. After independence, Indonesia has clarified the basic idea of education under the principle of the foundation, and is actively working on solving educational problems.
Recalling that education in that country is the biggest factor forming the citizens of that country, it is necessary to grasp the history of education in that country correctly. [Mitsuo Otani, Masahiro Kamiyama]
Education in America
Migration to Puritan’s northern New England starting in 1620 is the first step in the construction of the American colony and American education also began at this time. In 1642 a compulsory education order was promulgated and in 1647 it was obliged to establish a primary school in each town. Children were able to acquire reading skills and useful hand skills. Prior to that, Harvard College was established in 1636, and Latin Grammar School was established as a secondary school preparing for this college admission. The southern part was short of workers on the farm, so “Maintenance Contractor” was sent from the mainland of England. Many of these people were largely indifferent to the future of my child. Education is not the responsibility of the government, education for these children was done in apprenticeship system, some affiliated schools, old field shools at farmhouses school. [Mitsuo Otani, Masahiro Kamiyama]
Educational circumstances of the 18th century and American independence
In the early 18th century, in the northern New England, merchant classes appeared as emerging forces. This changed greatly the social, culture and education in the north. Commercial, real interest has changed for traditional religious interest. Latin grammar · school, mainly preparatory education for entering college, declined and an academy was established to teach practical educational contents (navigation technique, surveying technique, bookkeeping, French, Spanish, etc.). In addition, the reorganization of the educational content of higher education institutions was implemented, and a new type of college (King’s College – after Columbia University, Philadelphia College, etc.) that was not bound by the tradition was founded.
In the south, black slavery was introduced. This introduction changed the traditional southern labor structure and encouraged change of social system. In Virginia state 100,000 acres (40,468 hectares) or 300 thousand acres of farm owner emerged, eventually these landlords became rulers of politics. They put their teenagers on their siblings and made them school and college in Europe. On the other hand, the small farmers who had to escape to the backland were forced to painstakingly settled their lives, and also created schools (district school district school) to manage and operate themselves for their children’s education.
On July 4, 1776, Jefferson drafted the “Declaration of Independence” based on human freedom and equality. In 1783, the United States was officially approved. On May 25, 1787, a meeting for the establishment of the Constitution of the United States in Philadelphia was held. Northeastern commerce and industry and conservative politicians have made efforts to establish and ratify the Constitution of the United States and realize the new government. Eventually they dominated the national affairs and also enjoyed the privilege on education and culture. The expansion of educational opportunities at the time of the independence revolution and the passion for the public free school system declined and the energy to education of the municipal government was directed mainly to the change of the academy and the expansion of the college . [Mitsuo Otani, Masahiro Kamiyama]
Educational circumstances of the 19th century, especially the educational reform movement
Since the late eighteenth century America has made remarkable progress with the expansion of the industrial revolution and the accompanying economic activities. However, it is seen as a modern economic crisis, 1819, 1837 and 1859. Generally speaking, modern industrialization in the United States promoted the expansion of the factory system and the increase in the factory workers’ population. It means the emergence of a new social stratum. On the history of American education, the establishment of the public education system is seen. In the northern part, and in the case of the southern part, it is considerably behind the northern part, but by establishing administrative mechanisms such as legislative measures and public education, the establishment of a school of no scholarship, the neutral educational content not biased to a specific sect or faction And promoted thorough enforcement of the obligatory enrollment system of all citizen’s children’s brothers.
In 1860, Republican Lincoln was elected the 16th President. In 1861, the Civil War began. The greatest civil war in America’s history ended as a victory in the northern part of 1865. Among the rebuilding period after the Civil War, what is particularly important was the educational problem of African-American who had not been given opportunities for public education by racial discrimination or slavery. Among them, the activities of the Liberation Private Bureau have been remarkable, and 3,000 schools were established. According to the model of the common school, the curriculum was improved and efforts were made to disseminate African-American education.
Civil war dust (Yojin)When the obligation of primary education started spreading to each state, educational reform campaign based on European educational thought occurred such as Ostwald movement of Ostwaldism movement and Herbert school’s five-step teaching method. However, as Dewe energetically developed the education theory of pragmatic educational thought, American education has stopped importing directly from European education and started taking a tendency based on its own educational theory. Regarding the educational system, the public high school has rapidly increased, and it has become an acceptance for an increase in education for educators. State universities became popular, and in the mid 1910 ‘s, state universities reached 53 schools, and the number of students numbered 130 thousand. Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, established the first full-fledged graduate school in the United States, and then 15 graduate schools were added by the end of the 19th century. [Mitsuo Otani, Masahiro Kamiyama]
Educational circumstances in the first half of the 20th century
In the 20th century, the United States established a national system of typical industrial bourgeoisie, signs of capital monopoly began to appear. The educational policy of the United States after World War I is characteristic in the following three points.